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乌兰布和绿洲区农田土壤质量评价及演化
Assessment and Evolution of Soil Quality of Farmlandsin Ulanbuh Oasis Area of China
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  乌兰布和绿洲区  农田土壤质量  综合评价  演化
英文关键词:Ulanbuh oasis areas  Soil quality of farmlands  Integrated assessment  Evolution
基金项目:中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金(CAFYBB2008027)资助。
作者单位
包耀贤,肖晶晶,孙艳芳,刘晓威 (北京北华中清环境工程技术有限公司北京 100176) 
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中文摘要:
      基于乌兰布和绿洲区开垦13~38 a 6类农田,测试0~20 cm土层24个土壤指标,利用因子分析法和模糊数学原理进行土壤质量综合评价和演化趋势研究。表明:因子分析法筛出17个评价指标(速效氮、有效性钾、速效钾、蔗糖酶、脲酶、碱性磷酸酶、有机质、CEC、<0.01mm微团聚体、pH、物理性粘粒、蛋白酶、全钾、速效磷、真菌、纤维素酶和放线菌)对土壤质量指数(SQI)贡献可解释85.2%的信息量,评价结果具有高度代表性和可检验性,并建立SQI与17个指标间的演算模型。各农田SQI在0.20~0.62间,差异显著;各农田SQI高出对照1.5~2.2倍,SQI普遍得以提高;83%的样点SQI<0.5,SQI整体较低(均值0.41)。绿洲农田形成近40 a来,SQI随耕种年限呈前增后降的缓变极显著演化趋势,临界年是第30年,但经营38 a后SQI整体仍略高于耕种13 a农田。建议均衡施肥,以有机肥或有机肥+NP为主,少量补K,条件许可时种植固氮牧草休耕养地。
英文摘要:
      Based on 6 types of farmlands with 13~38 years of tillage in Ulanbuh oasis area, 24 indicators in 0-20cm soil layer were tested, and the integrated quantitative assessment and evolution of soil quality were done by factor analysis method and principle of fuzzy mathematics. The results showed that 17 indicators were screened.The 17 indicators inculded organic matter, available N, available P, total K, available K, readily available K, pH, CEC, fungus, actinomyces, invertase, urease, alkaline phosphatase, protease, cellulose, physical clay and microaggregate, which could explain 85.2% of variation information to SQI (Soil Quality Index). the evaluation results were highly representative and verifiable, and the simulation equation was established between SQIs and 17 indexes. SQIs ranging from 0.20 to 0.62 were significant difference. SQIs of all farmlands were 1.5~2.2 times higher than that of control samples on average, soil quality was improved as a whole. The proportion of SQIs<0.5 was 83%, SQIs were lower wholly (mean value 0.41). SQIs showed very significant evolutionary trends toward increase at first,and then slight decrease over nearly 40 years of farming, the critical time was in year 30, however, SQIs was higher than that of farmlands cultivated for 13 years overall after 38 years of farming. It was recommended to adopt balanced fertilization such as organic fertilizer or organic fertilizer + NP + small amount of supplement K, according to actuality of study area, nitrogen fixation forage grass should be planted to fallow and improve farmlands further.
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