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生物炭与氮肥减量配施对土壤养分含量及烟叶产质量的影响
Effects of Biochar Addition and Chemical N Fertilizer Reduction Application on Soil Nutrient Content, Quality and Yield of Flue-cured Tobacco
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  生物炭  氮肥  土壤特性  烤烟  产质量
英文关键词:Biochar  Chemical N fertilizer  Soil characteristics  Flue-cured tobacco  Yield and quality
基金项目:上海烟草集团资助项目(20193100001);河南省青年人才托举工程资助项目(2020HYTP024);中国科协青年人才托举工程资助项目(2017QNRC001)。
作者单位
阎海涛,常 栋,王晓强,蔡宪杰,何晓冰,张 凯,]王明鑫,张富生,阴广宇,许成悦 (1.河南省烟草公司平顶山市公司河南 平顶山 4670002.上海烟草集团有限责任公司上海 200082) 
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中文摘要:
      为豫中烟叶生产中合理施用生物炭,减少化肥用量提供科学依据。通过大田试验,以常规施用氮肥为对照(CK),研究了生物炭+100%常规施氮肥(B)、生物炭+85%常规施氮肥(BN1)以及生物炭+70%常规施氮肥(BN2)对土壤养分含量、烟叶化学成分及经济性状的影响。结果表明:与对照相比,生物炭与氮肥配施显著提高了土壤有机碳和溶解性有机碳含量,同时也提高了土壤全氮、硝态氮和速效钾的含量。其中有机碳和溶解性有机碳含量以BN2含量最高,分别比对照增加了31.90%和39.84%。土壤全氮、硝态氮和速效钾的含量以B处理最高,分别比对照增加了15.28%、56.40%和22.24%,且在相同生物炭用量下随着氮肥用量的减少而降低。生物炭与氮肥配施显著提高了土壤微生物碳氮的含量,与对照相比,提高幅度分别为38.76%~55.34%和78.92%~158.58%。生物炭施用条件下降低氮肥用量可以显著提高烤后烟叶总糖、还原糖含量,降低总氮和烟碱含量,改善两糖比和钾氯比,有利于提升烟叶化学成分协调性。此外,生物炭施用条件下减少15%氮肥对烤烟经济性状影响不大,但是减少30%氮肥后产量和产值则显著低于对照。因此,综合考虑土壤保育及烟叶产质量因素,豫中烟田在添加生物炭条件下适当减少氮肥施用是可行的,用量以1 500 kg/hm2生物炭+44.6 kg/hm2化学氮肥为宜。
英文摘要:
      To provide a scientific basis for fertilizer application, a field experiment was conducted to study the effect of chemical N fertilizer reduction combined with biochar application on soil nutrient content,quality and yield of tobacco. Four treatments were set as: CK(conventional N fertilization), B(biochar+100% conventional N fertilization), BN1(biochar+85% conventional N fertilization), BN2(biochar+70% conventional N fertilization). The results showed that the contents of organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, nitrate and available potassium significantly increased under the combined application of biochar and N fertilizer. Compared with the control, the highest organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon contents were observed under the BN2 treatment, the increment was 31.90% and 39.84%, respectively; the contents of total nitrogen, nitrate and available potassium under the B treatment reached the largest value, and increased by 15.28%、56.40% and 22.24%, respectively; under the three treatments with biochar addition, the contents of total nitrogen, nitrate and available potassium decreased with the decrease of N fertilizer application rates. Soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen under different fertilization treatments significantly increased by 38.76%~55.34% and 78.92%~158.58% compared to the control, respectively. The treatments of biochar addition combined with 15%~30% reducing nitrogen application rate significantly increased total sugar, reducing sugar content in cured tobacco leaf, decreased the total nitrogen and nicotine content, and improved the harmony of intrinsic chemical components of tobacco leaf. In addition, the treatment with 15% reducing nitrogen application rate did not make much difference on economic characters of tobacco compared with CK. While, the yield and output of tobacco in BN2 was much lower than CK. Overall, considering soil conservation and quality and yield of tobacco, it is feasible to reduce nitrogen application rate with biochar addition in tobacco-growing area of central Henan , and the optimum treatment was BN1(1 500 kg/hm2 biochar+44.6 kg/hm2 chemical N fertilizer).
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