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西安市化肥施用面源污染环境风险评价研究
Study on Environmental Risk Evaluation of Non-point Source Pollution Caused by Chemical Fertilizer Application in Xi'an
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  化肥施用强度  面源污染  环境风险  空间分异  西安市
英文关键词:Fertilizer intensity  Non-point source pollution  Environmental risk  Spatial differentiation  Xi'an
基金项目:陕西省教育厅科学研究计划项目(20JK0976);西安市科技局农业技术研发项目(20NYYF0044);咸阳职业技术学院科研基金项目(2020KJC01);咸阳职业技术学院2021 年度博士科研基金项目(2021BK03) 。
作者单位
高 莹,孙喜军,景鹏娟,王军利,权 刚 (1.咸阳职业技术学院陕西 咸阳 7120002.西安市农业技术推广中心陕西 西安 7100613.陕西省现代农业科学研究院陕西 西安 710068) 
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中文摘要:
      专项定量评估化肥施用面源污染环境风险,精准识别化肥施用面源污染高风险区域,进而制定有效措施,对面源污染管控工作至关重要。利用西安市1991-2018年化肥施用相关统计数据,全面分析了全市化肥施用时序演变和空间分异特征,并评价了化肥施用面源污染环境风险程度。结果表明:西安市化肥施用量在经历1991-2014年的快速增长后,于2015-2018年出现“四连降”;氮磷钾化肥施用结构比例由1991的1∶0.24∶0.13逐步调整为2018年的1∶0.34∶0.37;1991-2018年间化肥施用强度随时间递增趋势明显,2018年化肥施用强度为1991年的3.60倍;化肥施用环境风险整体增大趋势明显,总肥风险已由1991年的“尚安全”程度上升为2018年的“重度风险”程度。西安市化肥施用面源污染环境风险空间差异明显,其中长安区为“低度风险”区域,临潼区、高陵区和鄠邑区为“中度风险”区域,灞桥区、阎良区和蓝田县为“重度风险”区域,未央区和周至县为“严重风险”区域。在确保农作物产量基础上,西安市应从施肥技术、科技攻关、政策法规等层面入手,制定有效管控措施。
英文摘要:
      It is very important for us to quantitatively evaluate the environmental risk of non-point source pollution caused by fertilizers application, to accurately identify the high-risk areas of non-point source pollution, and to formulate some effective measures. Based on the statistical data of fertilizers application in Xi'an from 1991 to 2018, the temporal evolution and spatial differentiation characteristics of chemical fertilizer application in the whole city were comprehensively analyzed, and the environmental risk degree of non-point source pollution caused by fertilizers application was evaluated. The results showed that after the rapid growth from 1991 to 2014, the application rate of chemical fertilizer in Xi'an decreased in four consecutive years from 2015 to 2018; The proportion of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizers application structure was gradually adjusted from 1∶0.24∶0.13 in 1991 to 1∶0.34∶0.37 in 2018; From 1991 to 2018, fertilizer intensity increased significantly,and the fertilizer intensity in 2018 was 3.60 times than in 1991; The overall increasing trend of environmental risk of chemical fertilizer application was obvious, and the risk of total fertilizer increased from " safe" in 1991 to "severe risk" in 2018. There were obvious spatial differences in environmental risk of non-point source pollution caused by fertilizers application in Xi'an. In conclusion,Chang'an District is a "low risk" area, Lintong District, Gaoling District and Huyi District are "medium risk" areas, Baqiao District, Yanliang District and Lantian County are "serious risk" areas, and Weiyang District and Zhouzhi County are "serious risk" areas. For ensuring crop yield, Xi'an should formulate effective control measures in the aspects of fertilization technology, research, related policies and regulations.
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