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不同矿化度微咸水亏缺灌溉对棉花生长与产量的影响
Effects of Different Salinity Brackish Water Deficit Irrigations on Cotton Growth and Yield
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  微咸水  土壤盐分  棉花生长  亏缺灌溉
英文关键词:Brackish water  Soil salinity  Cotton growth  Deficit irrigation
基金项目:新疆自治区重大科技专项(2020A01002-1)资助。
作者单位
张建军, 彭珂珊, 曹 伟 (1.新疆维吾尔自治区水资源中心新疆 乌鲁木齐 830000
2.西北农林科技大学,陕西 杨凌 712100) 
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中文摘要:
      研究适宜的微咸水利用方案和简易的应用模式,为干旱区农业的可持续发展提供理论依据。采用大田试验与理论分析相结合的方法,试验为裂区设计,主因素为灌溉定额,副因素为不同灌溉水矿化度。设置2种灌溉定额满灌(5 250 m·hm-2)和亏灌(4 200 m·hm-2),灌溉水矿化度设置6种淡水、咸水配比,即淡咸比1∶0;淡咸比4∶1;淡咸比3∶2;淡咸比2∶3;淡咸比1∶4;淡咸比0∶1,开展棉田膜下滴灌的试验。结果表明,满灌处理的株高要大于亏灌处理,而茎粗要小于亏灌处理,株高、茎粗、叶绿素含量在不同处理间无明显变化规律;满灌条件和亏灌条件下棉花生长前期的干物质量差异不大,但吐絮期满灌条件下各处理的干物质量均要大于亏灌处理并且随着各处理矿化度的增加棉花的单株干物质量呈先下降后增大的趋势。在一定矿化度范围之内,棉花的干物质量随着灌溉水矿化度的增加呈减小的趋势,但灌溉水矿化度达到一定程度后,干物质量会显著增加,满灌情况下灌溉水矿化度每增加1 g·L-1棉花的籽棉产量减少3.36 %,亏灌情况下灌溉水矿化度每增加1 g·L-1棉花的籽棉产量减少4.34 %,满灌情况下灌溉水矿化度为6.8 g·L-1(T4处理)时,亏灌20 %灌溉水量引起的减产高于满灌情况下溉水矿化度为6.8 g·L-1时引起的减产。综合考虑产量、水分利用效率和增加的成本,在水资源极度匮乏的情况下,建议研究区使用淡水与咸水2∶3的比例(矿化度为6.8±0.58 g·L-1)进行灌溉。
英文摘要:
      A suitable brackish water utilization scheme and a simple application mode were studied to provide theoretical basis for the sustainable development of agriculture in arid areas.The field experiment and theoretical analysis were conducted,split plot experiment was designed,the irrigation quota was taken as main factor and different irrigation water salinities as the secondary factor, two kinds of irrigation quota including full irrigation ( 5 250 m·hm-2 ) and deficit irrigation ( 4 200 m·hm-2 ) , and, irrigation water salinity of six ratios of fresh water to salt water,, including 1∶0 , 4∶1, 3∶2, 2∶3 ,1∶4 and 0∶1, were set up to conduct the experiment of drip irrigation under mulch in cotton field. The results showed that the plant height under full irrigation treatment was greater than that of deficit irrigation treatment, while the stem diameter was less than that of deficit irrigation treatment. There was no significant change in plant height, stem diameter and chlorophyll content under different treatments. There was no significant difference in the dry matter mass of cotton at the early growth stage under full irrigation and deficit irrigation, but the dry matter mass of each treatment under full irrigation at boll opening stage was greater than that under deficit irrigation, and the dry matter mass per plant of cotton decreased first and then increased with the increase of salinity of each treatment. Within a certain range of salinity, the dry mass of cotton showed a decreasing trend with the increase of salinity of irrigation water. However, when the salinity of irrigation water reached a certain degree, the dry mass significantly increased. Under the condition of full irrigation, the salinity of irrigation water increased 1 g·L-1, the seed cotton yield decreased by 3.36 %. Under the condition of deficit irrigation,the salinity of irrigation water increased 1 g ·L-1 ,the seed cotton yield decreased by 4.34 %. Under the condition of full irrigation, the salinity of irrigation water was 6.8 g·L-1 ( T4 treatment ), the yield reduction caused by 20 % of deficit irrigation was higher than that caused by 6.8 g·L-1 under the condition of full irrigation.In the yield, water use efficiency and increase of costs, in the case of extreme scarcity of water resources, it is recommended to use fresh water and salt water 2∶3 ( salinity 6.8 ± 0.58 g·L-1 ) for irrigation in the study area. ;
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